Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang (DSH)

German language exam for admission to universities

In order to enable you to study at a German university, you usually need a confirmation of the exam DSH. DSH consists of a written and oral exam. The written portion of the exam covers the areas of language, such as listening, reading comprehension, short essay, and the understanding and treatment of scientific and linguistic structures. Despite the fact that each university independently makes their assignments for the exam, they are guided with accepted standards for the whole of Germany.DSH exam

Exam can only be in one of the universities. Most often, it held a few weeks before the semester starts.

At the end of the exam score is not assigned. Universities offer training courses, which are, if possible, you should visit, because you can re-take the DSH once. Part in the exam, usually free, but it is sometimes necessary to make a small charge.

The exam DSH

Exam DSH (Deutsche Sprachprufung fur den Hochschulzugang) is required if you are applying to one of the universities in Germany. It includes two parts: written and oral. The written examination is held before oral. To fulfill the written part is permitted, as a rule, use the dictionary.

What is included in the written part of the exam DSH?

Understanding and analysis of audiotexts

You must confirm the understanding of scientific lectures and essays, as well as to show your ability to take notes (taken by ear). Audiotexts includes 50-100 lines. After that, the text is read aloud one or two times. You may continue to make notes.

You will then be given an assignment, which may differ in different universities. This can be the answers to the questions on the text, or the transfer of meaning of the text, or part (paraphrase). More attention is paid to the content, not grammar.

Understanding and analysis of printed text

Checks the ability to understand written text in German. You must perform the task in formulating your own phrase, you can not rewrite the text or a paragraph. You will be offered a volume of 30-60 unadapted text strings, which may be accompanied with a drawing or chart.

Different variants of tasks:
• answers to questions about the text;
• comments on the passages of text;
• summarize and break up text into meaningful parts, etc.

And in this task a priority substantial part, not grammatically correct.

Drafting as criteria

In this part of the test you must show the ability to independently formulate in writing a coherent detailed text on the given criteria.

Different types of tasks:
• Explanation of the original thesis;
• commenting theses;
• a written thesis proposed development, etc.

Along with the substantive part (connectivity text, etc.) is estimated grammatical correctness.

Understanding and analysis of the structures of the scientific language

In this part of the exam you need to answer the questions aimed at understanding, as well as addition and reformulation of linguistic structures that are often used in the scientific lexicon.

These four areas can occur in different combinations, so that the written exam DSH may consist of two, three or four parts. But, in any case, the exam covers all of these areas. Understanding the examination and analysis of the text does not provide for special skills.

What includes an oral part of the exam DSH?

Typically, DSH includes the oral part, which takes about 20 minutes. Sometimes an oral examination is not carried out, if the possession of the German spoken applicant has confirmed in preparatory courses before exams DSH. Therefore it is better to clarify the procedure for the examination at the university where you plan to do.

During the oral part of the exam DSH you must show the ability to converse in German, to discuss issues from the scientific sphere.

Often for the oral part of the exam, use the short text, illustrations, etc. Topics – from the scientific sphere. Oral examination may also be conducted without a basic written text.

Before the beginning of the oral examination, usually given time to prepare – about 20 minutes. During this time it is necessary to analyze the content and to think in advance the possible questions on the text.

Exam Policies DSH operate throughout Germany. But since universities organize their own exam, there may be differences in the assignments. So you should ask in the selected sample of university examination tasks.

Who can take part in the exam DSH?

Prerequisite for participation in DSH in most universities is the admission to higher education. Participation in training courses is not a prerequisite.

DSH exam does not include estimates. The result can only be – “delivered” or “not passed” in this assessment can be set separately. Exam passed if both its parts (written and verbal) you have made a total of not less than two-thirds of jobs. Otherwise, the test is not valid. According to the results of the exam DSH certificate is issued.

Where can I take the exam DSH?

DSH exam starts 3-4 weeks before the start of each semester at universities in Germany. The specific date of the examination establishes the university. In the educational institution where you are applying, you must provide the date of the next exam.

How much does the exam DSH?

Many universities participated in the exam fee. Some universities, however, charge a fee  between 130 and 150 Euro.

Is it possible to re-exam DSH?

You can retake the exam DSH once. In exceptional cases, with the permission of the Chairman Examination Committee, allowed second Retake. Are regarded as all attempts to pass the exam, including other universities. Currently DSH Retake possible not less than 3 months.

International exams on German language


Successful completion of the exam on the German language is the condition for foreigners entering the university in Germany. Obtaining a certificate TestDaf allows to go to university in Germany with teaching all subjects in German, as well as working together with German firms staff-bearers of German. International exam in German TestDaf held several times a year.International exams in Germany


This international exam in German, as well as the previous one, can enroll in universities to teach all subjects in German, as well as working in German companies along with staff-native German. International exam in German DSH must be sent to the universities from which the student has received a notice of preliminary admission to the exam. DSH exam conducted universities twice a year, just weeks before the start of the next semester. This international allowed to repeat the exam only once.


International exam in German ZD performed to a level below the average, and evaluates the basic language skills. This international exam recognized in Germany as an entrance examination to the technical colleges (Fachoberschule) and to obtain German citizenship. ZD international exam held from 4 to 6 times a year.


International exam in German KDS performed at an advanced level and is recognized for admission to German universities. KDS  diploma allows you to work as a teacher of German in some countries. International exam in German KDS carried out 2 times a year.


International exam in German GDS is conducted at an advanced level and is recognized for admission to German universities. GDS certificate demonstrates proficiency in German at the highest level, which gives you the freedom to play and to take any of the information, including scientific and artistic nature. A diploma GDS allows you to work as a teacher of German in most countries.


International exam in German ZMP is recognized in Germany as an entrance examination to the technical colleges and the so-called Studienkollegs.


International exam in German ZOP may take those who are confident in the German language, and wants to go to university in Germany. International exam ZOP held six times a year.


International exam for business German PWD is sufficient evidence that the holder is free to communicate and maintain business contacts in the areas of business such as marketing, production, finance and office work.

Ranking of universities in Germany.

University of Heidelberg

In the education system in Germany the most famous and most prestigious institution of higher education is the University of Heidelberg in Germany, founded in 1386, modeled on the Paris Sorbonne. It is located in the small town of Heidelberg, about 60 kilometers from Frankfurt-am-Main. In XIX century Heidelberg is considered to be the best in Europe law school. Among the teachers of the university were philosophers Hegel and Jaspers, chemist Geymgolts, eight Nobel Prize winners. As part of the University of Heidelberg, there are 15 departments – biology, chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, law, philosophy and oriental languages, modern languages, political science, sports, health, etc. The University has opened a number of specialized research centers – in particular, the Institute of South Asian and Heidelberg Institute for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck. Foreign students are studying in Germany, about 12% of the total number of students (25,000) in University.


Second place in the German universities is located in Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (founded in XV century). This university is known for Europe’s largest medical faculty. Besides it, the university includes 19 faculties. The total number of students of the University of Munich is 44 thousand.Ranking of universities in Germany

The economy is better taught in Mannheim, Munich and Cologne. For those who want to study in Germany it makes sense to go to Passau, Freiburg, Heidelberg and Münster. As for private universities, the University of Witten-Herdecke specializes in medicine, economics, and natural sciences. Three other private university – Higher school for business leaders in Koblenz, European Business School in the acute-Winkel, and the European School of Economics in Berlin in Germany provide training professionals to work in international markets.

Choosing a university education in Germany, remember that many of the schools are overcrowded. Classical universities overwhelmed more than “new.” Because of overcrowded classrooms, some students forced to watch the lecture via video in the next room. Of course, students can not rely on close contact with the teachers and mentoring. The greatest inconvenience experienced students who are trained in Germany on the most popular field of study with limited reception and strict quotas for foreigners – architecture, medicine, pharmacy, psychology, biology, computer science, economics and law.

At appropriate faculties Aachen, Bremen, Bonn, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Göttingen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Cologne, Marburg, Munich, Munster, Tubingen and Wurzburg overload most notable. Learning conditions in Bamberg, Clausthal, Flensburg, Duisburg, Greifswald, Ilmenau, Kaiserslautern, Halle-Wittenberg and Trier somewhat better.

Education in the eastern states of Germany is more favorable because schools are less crowded. Learning environment  is favorable, students find a lot of support from teachers. However, the problem with many high schools are obsolete equipment that do not meet international standards of academic buildings and dormitories. Foreign students studying in Germany, feel more comfortable in the universities, where many students from abroad. These include the European School of Economics in Berlin, an international school in Zittau, Fiadrina University in Frankfurt an der Oder. Many foreign students study in Berlin, Clausthal, Heidelberg, Frankfurt-am-Main, Aachen.

Universities in Germany

The system of higher education in Germany unites 326 universities, most of which are state owned. Private universities that produce trained in Germany, must necessarily have a state license to teach.

The basis of the system of education in Germany consists of 78 universities (Universitaet) and similar institutions.Universities in germany

In Germany there are three types of universities

  • This is a classic “old” universities with a rich history and tradition going back to the Middle Ages: the Heidelberg University, the University of Freiburg, Tübingen and several other cities. Initially they comprised only philosophical, medical and theological faculties, but with time to add other areas of training, although these faculties still remain major.
  • The second type of institutions that provide training in Germany – are universities that received the status of technical and other specialized institutions. For example, the Higher Technical School in Hanover, in 1968, received the status of a technical university, and then, in 1978, was transformed into a university. This group includes the technical university (Technische Universitaeten) and related to the status of the higher technical schools (Technische Hochschulen) in Aachen and Darmstadt. The boundary between the technical universities and universities often simply conventional: so, the University of Rostock has a technical department, and, for example, at the Technical University of Karol-Wilhelmina in Braunschweig has branches of humanities and social sciences, where you need to write a speech.
  • The third type of German universities – universities that have arisen in the past 30-40 years at the peak of the rapid development of higher education in Germany. This is the Ruhr-University in Bochum Universities of Konstanz, Regensburg, Bielefeld, other new universities and private colleges. All of them (except, perhaps, of the University of Bochum) can not compete with the classic lines of the diversity training. Instead, they conducted experiments on the introduction of modern methods of teaching, they often have campuses that are not generally characteristic of the German universities.

Although the six smaller private schools enrolled only 0.1% of the total number of university students, all of them are well recognized by the state and are listed in their respective fields. The special features include private universities tuition fees are currently 1,500 to 4,000 Euro per semester, and often taught in English, and more stringent admissions criteria, the maximum duration of study concentrated.

The combined high schools is in Duisburg, Essen, Wuppertal, Siegen, Paderborn and Kassel

These institutions are integrated courses for joint training, and research profiles. Thus, the combined high schools offer an “all in one” of universities and special schools.  For example, in North Rhine-Westphalia, where most of this type of education, adopted the so-called Y-model: at a basic stage of education (2 semesters), students do the same for all program offices, and at the stage of specialization, they are divided into two streams , one of which focuses on short-term program (6 semesters), the other – in full (8 semesters). Learning how to brief and full-cycle completed delivery of final exams and thesis defense. Short cycle graduates assigned diploma I, the full cycle – Diploma II, equivalent university degree.

Besides the universities, training in Germany there are non-university higher education institutions. They include professional high schools (Fachhochschulen). Fachhochschulen emerged on the basis of engineering schools, analogues of our professional schools. In 1976, they were included in the system of higher education. Gradually, their level grew: in addition to the training they have to work on the applied research, requirements for faculty increased. At present, the Fachhochschulen is trained around a quarter of all students. Universities train specialists in this type of 120 profiles of engineers, economists, designers and professionals in other fields. Most special schools in Germany are small – between one and five thousand students.

German Higher Education


Duration of training in Germany varies according to the type of institution and academic degree. The Law on Higher Education “standard period of study” in Germany (Regelstudienzeit), is the period during which, as a rule, you can complete a full training course and pass the final exam at the first award of professional qualifications.German higher education
Only in special cases can be equipped with a different “standard”. For example, to obtain an academic bachelor’s degree (Bachelor or Bakkalaureusgrad) “standard period of study” in Germany is at least three – maximum of four years.

Then you can take the second final examination for the award of the Master’s degree or master’s degree (Master or Magistergrad). To obtain this degree “standard period of study” designed in Germany for at least a year – a maximum of four years.

To prepare and defend a thesis for the degree of “doctor”, you will need an additional two to five years. Due to the fact that a university education in Germany due to the research activities, many students exceed the terms “standard period of study.”

Gradations of higher education institutions in Germany

German higher education system consists of the different types of higher education institutions that are able to meet the needs of each student.

Hochschule – a university, usually humanities.

Another type of higher education institution – Fachhochschule – the Russian language can be passed as a university of applied sciences or higher special school. Fachhochschule feature is the close connection between theory and practice. All programs require Fachhochschule two compulsory practical semester. In addition, the period of study in this university is shorter (typically 8 semesters). Fachhochschule prepare qualified specialists for specific industries, as a rule, – engineering, business management, design, and social field. Upon completion of the course, students receive a diploma. Thus, Fachhochschule attracts students faster path to their future careers.

Universitaet – bigger than the Hochschule and Fachhochschule.

Number of subjects and departments can be very large (up to 400). Here, students are engaged in a purely scientific activity is engaged in fundamental and applied research. The university presented the areas of knowledge, medicine, natural, technical, and social sciences, law, theology, economics, sociology and agricultural science. A wide selection of items within one department provides a cross-disciplinary education and specialize in different aspects of the study. Academic degree assigned to universities diploma, Master Magister, the degree of Doctor , a docent / Professor Habilitationrecht, certificate giving the right to teach at the university.

Technische Universitaet

University of Technical Education. Here, from a purely theoretical point of view, a detailed study specific areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, electronics, electrical engineering, materials science, etc. Academic degrees are similar to those issued at the end of training in Universitaet.

There are also a number of specialized higher education institutions. For example, teacher training schools, schools of theology, art, and art and music schools, schools, cinema, etc.

Qualification certificate

A German university student can get – depending on their specialty – Diploma (Diplom), an academic master’s degree (Magister), or pass a state examination (Staatsexamen) as a final (all – the rank equivalent qualification). In addition, recently introduced training programs with internationally recognized academic degrees: BA (Bachelor / Bakkalaureus, BA, B.Sc., B.Eng.) And masters (Master, MA, M.Sc., M.Eng.) .

Will the student a diploma or master’s degree, depends, as a rule, the chosen specialty. Training programs in the natural sciences and technical fields, and most of the programs in sociology and economics is to receive a diploma. Students must write a thesis, rather large in size, and pass several written and oral exams. The diploma is a qualifying educational certificates entitling professional in many specialties in the industry and the economy.

The first test of the final assignment of professional qualifications in the humanities and, in part, sociology is the exam to be awarded the academic degree of Master (Magistergrad). To do this, students will have to pass exams in two majors (Hauptfach) or one profiling and two additional (Nebenfach). Students also write research.

State Examination is taken on those specialties successful study which gives the right to work in Germany as public servants (teachers, judges) or in professions that are under the control of the state 9vrachi, lawyers, pharmacists). Examination procedures established by the state or the appropriate federal land in the Regulation on examination requirements. As a rule, the state exam consists of two parts: the first and second examination.

A student can get an academic doctorate degree in any of the disciplines that are taught in German universities, provided that he graduated with good grades. TIn principle, the student is not limited in time, although he is expected to new developments in their chosen field. .

Secondary education in Germany

In secondary education in Germany there are four types of secondary schools:


The most prestigious type of school is a grammar school, a diploma which allows free entrance into all higher education universities in Germany. Typically, high schools specializing in humanities. The last 2 years  along with general subjects, students choose to study a number of specialized disciplines. The duration of the school – age 9, from 5 to 13 class. After grade 12, students receive a diploma Fachhochschulreife, eligibility for admission to the Institute (Fachhochschule), and after 13 class – Hochschulreife, matriculation to university.secondary education in germany

 Real school. Realschule

Education in the real school lasts 6 years, 5 to 10 class. In contrast to the grammar schools, the school is more focused on specialized disciplines, the main subjects are taught with a mandatory profile bias. The real school is the most common type of exposure to the majority of students (40%). Upon completion of training in a real school issues a certificate (Fachoberschulreife), allows entry to college, so you may be need help with speech writing.

The Basic School. Hauptschule

In elementary school, which gets about a quarter of children who are learning to grade 10. Elementary School provides basic general education, which, as in real school, focused on the choice of future profession. After teaching in elementary school students usually come in the vocational school.

Integrated schools. Gesamtschule

Combined schools provide with the basic features of all of these educational institutions. The duration of the merged school is 6 years old, from 5 to 10 class. In some integrated schools there is also high school (11 to 13 class), organized on the principle of high school gymnasiums, however, in contrast to the high school, and the kids come here without any recommendation from the primary school.  If the student successfully completes the high school, he issued matriculation Hochschulreife, certifying the level of education sufficient for admission.

In addition to all of those schools, in Germany, there are also special schools for children with mental or physical disabilities, with different levels and profiles, called Sonderschule.


Not all schools provide education, sufficient for entry to higher education, in fact, a school-leaving certificate is issued only after the successful completion of high school or unified school.

At the end of comprehensive school graduate has one of the following (Abitur)

  • Hauptschulabschluss – issued after the end of the 10 classes of elementary schools is sufficient for entry into vocational school.
  • Fachoberschulreife – issued after the end of the 10 classes of real schools, sufficient for admission to college or spetsprofuchilische.
  • Fachhochschulreife – issued after the end of 12 years of high school or combined school and after graduation, is sufficient for admission to the Institute.
  • Hochschulreife – issued after the end of the 13 classes of high school or unified school, is sufficient for admission.

Education in Germany

Education in Germany – is the prerogative of governments Lands. As a general rule, education is a land of culture ministers. At the federal level, education is coordinated by the Conference of Ministers of Culture of the land.Education in Germany

School education in Germany is universal and free. Compulsory 9-year education. Overall, the school system is designed for 12-13 years. Today in Germany, about 50,000 schools with an enrollment of more than 12.5 million students.

All children who have reached the age of six, starting primary school (Grundschule). Primary school lasts four years (four classes), the load is 20 to 30 hours a week. In the primary school in 2008 had been learned about 3 million students.

The formation of the second stage (mean I) continues to 10 th grade.

After primary school children are separated mainly by ability into three different groups. The weakest students are sent for further training in the so-called “main school” (German Hauptschule), with an enrollment of five years. The main goal of this school – preparation for professional life. Here we give a basic education. Load average 30-33 hours a week. After finishing primary school young German starts working or studying in the vocational education system, speech writing services. Pupils with average results go to “real school” (German Realschule) and taught there for 6 years. After finishing school you can get a job, and the most able can continue their education in the 11th and 12th grade high school.

In high school student is educated in classical type.

Upper secondary education (secondary II) is carried out only in high school in the 11th and 12th grades. Thirteenth grade school pupils are considered applicants. In the thirteenth grade school students preparing to study in higher education. At the end of the thirteenth grade school students take exams in basic school subjects (German Abitur). The level of education in the 12th and 13th grades and the level of final exams in high school are very high. Entrance examinations to higher education institutions in Germany are not held. Admission is carried out according to the average estimate in the certificate, as well as the some of the social factors. If the training at a university applicants than places, make better, and the other, take turns, and they can get a place to study in the following year.

School education in Germany has been criticized because of too early separation of children. The student who after primary school falls into the “home school” has no chance in the future to get a good education and have no chance to continue their studies in higher education.

Secondary education in Germany is presented by vocational schools, special vocational schools and higher special schools.

Germany subjected to constant criticism from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for its policy in the field of education. Government still does not take measures to address the identified problems in the education system. While the cost of a primary school is relatively small, a lot of money invested in higher education. Experts estimate that Germany may incur losses in the future, if not carried out educational reform.