Education in Germany – is the prerogative of governments Lands. As a general rule, education is a land of culture ministers. At the federal level, education is coordinated by the Conference of Ministers of Culture of the land.
School education in Germany, universal and free. Compulsory 9-year education. Overall, the school system is designed for 12-13 years. Today in Germany, about 50,000 schools with an enrollment of more than 12.5 million students. The school system is divided into three stages: primary, secondary, and I mean II.
All children who have reached the age of six, starting primary school (Grundschule). Primary school lasts four years (four classes), the load is 20 to 30 hours a week. In the primary school in 2008 had learned about 3 million students.
The formation of the second stage (mean I) continues to 10 th grade.
After primary school children are separated mainly by ability into three different groups. The weakest students are sent for further training in the so-called “main school” (German Hauptschule), with an enrollment of five years. The main goal of this school – preparation for professional life. Here we give a basic education. Load average 30-33 hours a week. After finishing primary school young German starts working or studying in the vocational education system. Pupils with average results go to “real school” (German Realschule) and taught there for 6 years. After finishing school you can get a job, and the most able can continue their education in the 11th and 12th grade high school.
In high school student is educated classical type. After graduating from high school leaving certificate is given, which is accepted by the university.
Upper secondary education (secondary II) is carried out only in high school in the 11th and 12th grades. Thirteenth grade school pupils are considered applicants. In the thirteenth grade school students preparing to study in higher education. At the end of the thirteenth grade school students take exams in basic school subjects (German Abitur). The level of education in the 12th and 13th grades and the level of final exams in high school is very high and the International Classification of standards of education, UNESCO ISCED 1-2 year corresponds to the higher education institutions of a decade-or eleven-year school system (eg, Russia). The average score of all exams abitura most important criterion for a place to study at a university. Entrance examinations to higher education institutions in Germany are not held. Admission is carried out according to the average estimate in the certificate, as well as the some of the social factors. If the training at a university applicants than places, make better, and the other, take turns, and they can get a place to study in the following year.
School education in Germany has been criticized because of too early separation on children and can not do. The student who after primary school falls into the “home school” has no chance in the future to get a good education and have no chance to continue their studies in higher education.
Secondary education in Germany is presented vocational schools, special vocational schools and higher special schools.
Germany subjected to constant criticism from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for its policy in the field of education. Government still does not take measures to address the identified problems in the education system. According to estimates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany spending on education is below average. In this case, there is an imbalance in funding education. While the cost of a primary school is relatively small, a lot of money invested in higher education. Experts estimate that Germany may incur losses in the future, if not carried out educational reform.